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Efemçukuru is a high grade, underground operation located in Izmir Province in western Turkey.

It uses gravity circuits followed by flotation to produce a flotation concentrate and a gravity concentrate.

Key Facts

Location Izmir Province, Turkey
Mine type Underground
Metals mined Gold
Employees/contractors 763
Expected mine life 12 years*
Deposit type Epithermal gold
Ownership 100%
Resources & Reserves

* Based on current proven and probable reserves.

2018 Outlook

Efemçukuru is expected to mine and process over 480,000 tonnes of ore at an average grade of 7.0 grams per tonne gold, producing 90,000-100,000 ounces of gold, at operating costs of $530-570 per ounce. Sustaining capital expenditures for 2018 are forecast to be approximately $20 million, spent primarily on underground mine development, equipment purchase and rebuilds, and various small capital projects.

Operating Data

2018E 2017A 2016A
Gold produced (oz) 90,000-100,000 96,089 98,364
Gold sold (oz) 92,575 99,744
Ore mined/processed (t) 480,000 481,649 476,528
Gold grade (g/t) 7.0 7.01 7.40
Cash operating costs ($/oz) 530-570 524 514
Sustaining capex ($M) 20.0 23.5

Geology and Mineralization

Efemçukuru is an intermediate sulfidation epithermal gold deposit hosted within Upper Cretaceous phyllite and schist at the western end of the Izmir-Ankara Suture Zone in SW Turkey. The host rocks are locally silicified to hornfels and cut by moderately N- to NE-dipping faults that are exploited by rhyolite dykes and epithermal veins. Two major veins host mineralization, Kestanebeleni and Kokarpinar, with the former containing the bulk of the ore. Vein mineralogy is variable but primarily consists of quartz, rhodonite (commonly replaced by rhodochrosite), adularia and sulfide assemblages including pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite and sphalerite. Spectacular, high grade banded crustiform-colloform textures characterize the veins in addition to multi-stage breccias that were likely the result of shallow-level boiling. Most of the gold is very fine (2.5 to 50 microns), occurring as free grains in quartz and carbonate, and as inclusions in sulphide minerals. Lower grade mineralized stockworks occur peripheral to the ore shoots, and are most strongly developed in hangingwall rocks.


The Efemçukuru deposit was identified and defined by Eldorado in the late 1990’s. Current exploration is focused on adding reserves at the two principal mineralized veins exposed at the project: the Kestane Beleni Vein, which hosts the present mine reserves, and the subparallel Kokarpinar Vein, located 400m to the east. In 2015, we began developing exploration access in the hangingwall of the Kestane Beleni Vein to provide us with underground drill platforms to target poorly-drilled or untested deeper areas of the vein.


2015 Commenced mining from the North Ore Shoot (NOS)
2014 Mine throughput increased to 435 ktpa
2013 Received approval of supplementary EIA for the expansion from 250,000 tpa to 600,000 tpa
2012 Commenced commercial sales of concentrate to third parties
2011 Commercial production began in December; mining and processing started in June
2008 Began construction
2007 Completed feasibility study
2005 Received EIA approval
1992 Discovered the deposit while carrying out reconnaissance work in western Turkey